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Etching is a complex chemical process that removes the unwanted copper and tin on the boards.

01

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The first step starts with the dry film. All the residue are dissolved, and the film is stripped away, leaving the unwanted copper exposed.

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02

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The etching step starts in a bath of a chemical solution. The challenge is to avoid over-etching or under-etching which would prevent a straight wall from being obtained. As for the inner layer, the uncovered copper is etched away and defines the pattern. Here, the tin protects the copper and the holes.

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03

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The tin is chemically removed and stripped away. Conductive areas and connections are now properly established.

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04

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A laboratory test is carried out to check the over-etching and the under-etching and to make sure that all unwanted copper layers have been removed with the exception of the resist layer.

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05

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The Automatic Optical Inspection is carried out directly after etching and compared with the data to highlight any inconsistencies and guarantee the absence of defects. In some cases, a short circuit or electrical opening can be repaired at this point.

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